The League of Nations did not pay much attention to the complaints of the legitimate Republican government that Germany and Italy did not comply with the pact. Thus, considering the difficulty for the Republicans to procure military equipment, the Soviet Union began sending military supplies. Also, the Red Army had a fundamental role in the training, advice and organization of the Spanish Republican Army in the key moments of the war as, for example, during the battle of Jarama or the Defense of Madrid. In parallel, the training of the Spanish military personnel was conducted in Soviet aviation schools.
In addition to the strictly military topics, it is interesting to review other forms of relationship between two countries that show the importance of the conflict in the creation of the geopolitical imagination of that time. Two examples. As an important humanitarian action, Soviet Union accepted approximately 5,000 children of the Republican fighters who became known as the "children from Russia", that had been evacuated from Spain in the face on the possible reprisals by the Nationalist faction. In terms of popular geopolitics, Ernest Hemingway in his 1940 novel For Whom the Bell Tolls
tells a story of a civil war in which the Soviet presence is a key factor to understand the quarrel. Concurrently, the war was followed closely in Russia through a 10-minute TV news broadcast which was in its entirety dedicated to the Spanish Civil War and broadcasted in 1936 and 1937. The recording and directing of several documentaries about the Defense of Madrid by a Soviet producer was displayed in Western Europe, nations which were standing aside of the conflict, but were considered an important venue in which to screen the global terms of the dispute
Finally, it is important to mention the role of the International Brigades in the war. Those were military units made up of international volunteers from many countries such as, for example, New Zealand, the United States, Mexico, Senegal and France. Despite having limited military experience, their membership in the trade unions or in some leftist parties in their home countries turned the defense of the republican cause and the fight against the fascism into a universal question during the two years that they spent in the front
The role of the International Brigades in the war had an impact on the key factors of the internationalization of the conflict. Nationalists' propaganda conducted constant agitation about an omnipresent Communist military menace and they pointed to the Brigades as a Soviet military structure. At the same time the fascist propaganda was neutral regarding the German and Italian intervention, which was requested by Franco himself and which came to Spain even before the Soviets, and outgunned and outmanned them. This shows us the forms of geopolitical construction of a world enemy.